Understanding the References Page

The References Page provides teachers with context to understand their students’ performance in Oral Reading Records. Teachers familiar with other evaluation metrics and techniques can easily understand and use Benchmark Education’s reading levels for their assignments. The References Page is accessible wherever the following icon appears:

Reading Level Conversion Guide

The Reading Level Conversion Guide tab compares Benchmark Education’s reading levels to other methods of literacy evaluation. You will see the Reading Level Conversion Guide whenever you first press the References button.

The guide explains how the different reading level metrics relate to each other, including Developmental Category, Grade Level, Letter Level, Number Level, and Lexile Range. Convert one metric to another by examining its equivalent in the neighboring columns.

Oral Reading Fluency Norms

The Fluency Norms tab provides context for understanding how your students are performing compared to other students in the same grade. The Fluency Norms page also helps you measure student improvement and offers an idea of common trajectories for a student’s language fluency development throughout the term.

Access the page by clicking the “Oral Reading Fluency Norms” tab on the References page. The default selected language is English.

Switching the tab to Spanish displays the fluency norms for that language.


The Calculations tab helps you understand how we determine a student’s proficiency score. Oral reading records yield one of three levels of proficiency: Independent, Instructional, and Frustrational. Proficiency Level is determined by the combination of the student's Accuracy score and their Comprehension Score.

Last Updated: June 30, 2022